Community:Scientonomy

From Encyclopedia of Scientonomy
Jump to: navigation, search

Scientonomy community was initially formed at the IHPST, University of Toronto around the time of the publication of Barseghyan's The Laws of Scientific Change1 with the main goal of advancing our knowledge of scientific change in a piecemeal and transparent fashion and establishing a proper empirical science of science, scientonomy.

The community publishes the Journal of Scientonomy, edits the Encyclopedia of Scientonomy, organizes scientonomic seminars and workshops.

The community was established in 2015.

History

In the years preceding the publication of The Laws of Scientific Change1 (2012-2015), the community would mostly gather during winter seminar sessions.

In 2015, the community has started working on the establishment of a proper science of science, Scientonomy.

To that end, the community launched the first Encyclopedia of Scientonomy early in 2016. The aim of this encyclopedia is to track the current state of our knowledge on the process of scientific change, trace and appraise all the proposed modifications, as well as to list all the open questions.

In September of 2016, the community launched the Journal of Scientonomy which aims at publishing original research in the field and collecting all the proposed modifications.

The community holds its annual meetings in January or February; these annual meetings are traditionally hosted by the University of Toronto.

Road-map

The road-map of the community includes:

  • Organizing annual workshops with the aim of discussing and evaluating those proposed modification which didn't yield a common verdict.
  • Launching a pilot tree of knowledge project to develop a schema for a historical database, design a respective user interface, as well as to fill that pilot database with some historical data to show how the whole system can actually work.
  • A full-fledged tree of knowledge website and a comprehensive historical database that would eventually include the theories and methods of all historical mosaics.

Current Mosaic

Accepted Topics

Definitional Topics

Descriptive Topics

Here is the semantic tree of all the descriptive questions that this community currently accepts as legitimate topics for discussion:

Normative Topics

Accepted Theories

Definitions

These are all the definitional topics with their respective definitions currently accepted by the community:
TopicAccepted Definition
Acceptance CriteriaAcceptance Criteria (Barseghyan-2015)
Accidental Group
Authority DelegationAuthority Delegation (Overgaard-Loiselle-2016)
Community
Compatibility CriteriaCompatibility Criteria (Barseghyan-2015)
Demarcation CriteriaDemarcation Criteria (Barseghyan-2015)
Descriptive TheoryDescriptive Theory (Sebastien-2016)
Employed MethodEmployed Method (Barseghyan-2015)
Epistemic Community
Group
Hierarchical Authority Delegation
Historical Context
History of Scientific ChangeHistory of Scientific Change (Barseghyan-2015)
Individual LevelIndividual Level (Barseghyan-2015)
Law
MethodMethod (Barseghyan-2015)
MethodologyMethodology (Sebastien-2016)
Mosaic MergeMosaic Merge (Barseghyan-2015)
Mosaic SplitMosaic Split (Barseghyan-2015)
Multiple Authority Delegation
Mutual Authority Delegation
Non-Epistemic Community
Non-Hierarchical Authority Delegation
Normative TheoryNormative Theory (Sebastien-2016)
One-sided Authority Delegation
Outcome AcceptOutcome Accept (Barseghyan-2015)
Outcome InconclusiveOutcome Inconclusive (Barseghyan-2015)
Outcome Not AcceptOutcome Not Accept (Barseghyan-2015)
Outcome Not Satisfied
Outcome Satisfied
Procedural MethodProcedural Method (Barseghyan-2015)
Scientific ChangeScientific Change (Barseghyan-2015)
Scientific Community
Scientific MosaicScientific Mosaic (Barseghyan-2015)
Singular Authority Delegation
Social LevelSocial Level (Barseghyan-2015)
Sociocultural Factors
Substantive MethodSubstantive Method (Barseghyan-2015)
Technological Theory
TheoryTheory (Sebastien-2016)
Theory AcceptanceTheory Acceptance (Sebastien-2016)
Theory PursuitTheory Pursuit (Barseghyan-2015)
Theory UseTheory Use (Barseghyan-2015)
Theory of Scientific ChangeTheory of Scientific Change (Barseghyan-2015)

Descriptive Theories

These are all the descriptive topics with their respective theories currently accepted by the community:
TopicAccepted AnswerAnswer Type
Accepted Methodology and Theory PursuitNone
Accepted Used Pursued Distinction for MethodsNone
Applicability of Scientonomy to Theories as ModelsNone
Applicability of the Laws of Scientific ChangeNone
Changeability of the Scientific MosaicDogmatism No Theory Change theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Conclusive Theory AssessmentNone
Delegation of Authority to ArtifactsNone
Delegation of Authority to Past CommunitiesNone
Deriving Methods from an Empty SetNone
Determinism vs. Underdeterminism in Scientific ChangeScientific Underdeterminism theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Underdetermined Method Change theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Underdetermined Theory Change theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Direct
Epistemic AgentsNone
Epistemic ElementsEpistemic Elements - Theories and Methods (Sebastien-2017)Direct
Epistemic Stances Towards TheoriesEpistemic Stances - Acceptance Use and Pursuit (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Existence of Sub-CommunitiesNone
Implementation vs. Employment of MethodsNone
Indicators of InconclusivenessNone
Indicators of Method EmploymentIndicators of Method Employment (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Indicators of Theory AcceptanceIndicators of Theory Acceptance (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Inferring Theory Assessment OutcomesNone
Mechanism of CompatibilityThe Zeroth Law (Harder-2015)Direct
Mechanism of Method EmploymentThe Third Law (Sebastien-2016)Direct
Mechanism of Method RejectionMethod Rejection theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Mechanism of Mosaic SplitNecessary Mosaic Split theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Possible Mosaic Split theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Split Due to Inconclusiveness theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Direct
Mechanism of Scientific ChangeThe Theory of Scientific ChangeDirect
Mechanism of Scientific InertiaThe First Law (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Mechanism of Theory AcceptanceThe Second Law (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Mechanism of Theory RejectionTheory Rejection theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Methodology and MethodsNone
Methods Shaping Theory ConstructionNone
Methods and Technical Research ToolsNone
Nature of AppraisalContextual Appraisal theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Necessary ElementsNon-Empty Mosaic theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Necessary MethodsNecessary Method theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Necessary TheoriesNone
Ontology of Scientific ChangeEpistemic Elements - Theories and Methods (Sebastien-2017)
Epistemic Stances - Acceptance Use and Pursuit (Barseghyan-2015)
Theory Assessment Outcomes (Barseghyan-2015)
Indirect
Possibility of ScientonomyPossibility of Scientonomy (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Possibility of Scientonomy - Argument from Bad Track RecordResponse to the Argument from Bad Track Record (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Possibility of Scientonomy - Argument from Changability of Scientific MethodResponse to the Argument from Changeability of Scientific Method (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Possibility of Scientonomy - The Argument from Nothing PermanentResponse to the Argument from Nothing Permanent (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Possibility of Scientonomy - The Argument from Social ConstructionResponse to the Argument from Social Construction (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Role of Methodology in Scientific ChangeMethodology Can Shape Method theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Role of Non-Social and Environmental Factors in Scientific ChangeNone
Role of Practical Considerations in Scientific ChangeNone
Role of Sociocultural Factors in Method EmploymentNone
Role of Sociocultural Factors in Scientific ChangeSociocultural Factors in Theory Acceptance theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Indirect
Role of Sociocultural Factors in Theory AcceptanceSociocultural Factors in Theory Acceptance theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Role of Used Theories in Method EmploymentNone
Static vs. Dynamic MethodsDynamic Substantive Methods theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Static Procedural Methods theorem (Barseghyan-2015)
Direct
Status of Disciplinary BoundariesNone
Status of ModelsNone
Status of Normative PropositionsNormative Propositions as Part of the Ontology of Scientific Change (Sebastien-2017)Direct
Status of QuestionsNone
Status of Tacit TheoriesNone
Status of Technological KnowledgeNone
Synchronism vs. Asynchronism of Method EmploymentAsynchronism of Method Employment theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Synchronism vs. Asynchronism of Method RejectionSynchronism of Method Rejection theorem (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Tautological Status of the First LawNone
Tautological Status of the Second LawThe Second Law is a Tautology (Barseghyan-2015)Direct
Tautological Status of the Zeroth LawNone
The Necessity of Intercommunication for CommunityNone
The Necessity of Language in CommunityNone
The Paradox of Normative PropositionsResolution to the Paradox of Normative Propositions (Sebastien-2016)Direct
Theory Assessment OutcomesTheory Assessment Outcomes (Barseghyan-2015)Direct

Normative Theories

Open Questions

Here are all the open questions currently accepted by the community:
TopicTopic TypeQuestionFormulated Year
Accepted Methodology and Theory PursuitDescriptiveIs there any connection between an accepted methodology and the pursuit of a theory?2016
Accepted Used Pursued Distinction for MethodsDescriptiveCan we apply the accepted/used/pursued distinction to methods?2016
Accidental GroupDefinitionalWhat is accidental group? How should it be defined?2016
Applicability of Scientonomy to Theories as ModelsDescriptiveIs the theory of scientific change applicable to theories construed as sets of models, or in ways that reject their purely formal characterization?2017
Applicability of the Laws of Scientific ChangeDescriptiveTo which mosaics do the laws of scientific change apply? Do they apply only to scientific communities, to all epistemic communities, or all communities whatsoever (including non-epistemic communities)? Do these patterns emerge and exist in communities who gather together to study the world?2017
Assessment of Scientonomy - MethodNormativeWhat method ought to be employed to assess a scientonomic theory?2015
CommunityDefinitionalWhat is community? How should it be defined?2016
Conclusive Theory AssessmentDescriptiveAre there really instances of conclusive theory assessment or does every case of theory assessment involve some degree of inconclusiveness?2016
Delegation of Authority to ArtifactsDescriptiveCan there be delegation of authority to tools, instruments, other material objects, or to computer software?2016
Delegation of Authority to Past CommunitiesDescriptiveIs it possible for a community to delegate authority to a community that no longer exists? Can a community delegate authority to a past expert?2017
Deriving Methods from an Empty SetDescriptiveDoes the possibility of a method being derived from an empty set pose a problem for the current formulation of the third law? Can we conceive of a situation in which a method is derived from an empty subset?2017
Epistemic AgentsDescriptiveWho can be a bearer of a mosaic? Can a community be a bearer of a mosaic? Can an individual be a bearer of a mosaic? Can an instrument' be a bearer of a mosaic?2016
Epistemic CommunityDefinitionalWhat is epistemic community? How should it be defined? I.e. how is it different form non-epistemic community?2016
Existence of Sub-CommunitiesDescriptiveIs there such a thing as a sub-community? Can communities consist of other communities?2017
GroupDefinitionalWhat is group? How should it be defined?2016
Hierarchical Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is hierarchical authority delegation? How should it be defined?2017
Historical ContextDefinitionalWhat is historical context? How should it be defined? Does it include only the content of the scientific mosaic, or does it also involve non-scientific sociocultural phenomena?2016
Implementation vs. Employment of MethodsDescriptiveIs there a difference between implementation and employment of a method? Is the mechanism of implementation the same as the mechanism of employment?2017
Indicators of InconclusivenessDescriptiveWhat indicators enable us to identify a historical case of inconclusive theory assessment?2016
Inferring Theory Assessment OutcomesDescriptiveWhat can an observational scientonomist infer about a theory's assessment outcome from the theory's acceptance/unacceptance?2017
LawDefinitionalHow should we define the term law in the scientonomic context? How is law different from theory? Do we even need law as a separate concept?2016
Methodology and MethodsDescriptiveCan a method become employed by being the deductive consequence of an already accepted methodology? How would this affect the Methodology Can Shape Methods theorem?2016
Methods Shaping Theory ConstructionDescriptiveDo our employed methods and accepted demarcation criteria influence theory construction?2016
Methods and Technical Research ToolsDescriptiveWhat is the relationship between methods and technical research tools?2016
Multiple Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is multiple authority delegation? How should it be defined?2017
Mutual Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is mutual authority delegation? How should it be defined?2016
Necessary TheoriesDescriptiveAre there theories that are necessarily part of any mosaic?2016
Non-Epistemic CommunityDefinitionalWhat is non-epistemic community? How should it be defined? I.e. how can it be differentiated from epistemic community?2016
Non-Hierarchical Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is non-hierarchical authority delegation? How should it be defined?2017
One-sided Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is one-sided authority delegation? How should it be defined?2016
Outcome Not SatisfiedDefinitionalHow should the theory assessment outcome not satisfied be defined?2017
Outcome SatisfiedDefinitionalHow should the theory assessment outcome satisfied be defined?2017
Role of Non-Social and Environmental Factors in Scientific ChangeDescriptiveIn addition to interactions between people in a community, what role do interactions between people and their natural, non-social environment have on the process of scientific change?2017
Role of Practical Considerations in Scientific ChangeDescriptiveWhat is the role of practical considerations such as financial constraints or limitations of manpower in the process of scientific change?2016
Role of Sociocultural Factors in Method EmploymentDescriptiveWhat is the role of sociocultural factors, such as economics or politics, in the process of method employment?2015
Role of Used Theories in Method EmploymentDescriptiveDoes the third law allow for methods to be deductive consequences of used theories?2017
Scientific CommunityDefinitionalWhat is scientific community? Can it be defined as more than simply “the bearer of a mosaic”?2015
Singular Authority DelegationDefinitionalWhat is singular authority delegation? How should it be defined?2017
Sociocultural FactorsDefinitionalWhat are sociocultural factors? How should they be defined?2016
Status of Disciplinary BoundariesDescriptiveHow do disciplinary boundaries exist within the scientific mosaic?2016
Status of ModelsDescriptiveWhat is the status of models in the mosaic?2016
Status of QuestionsDescriptiveWhat is the status of questions (problems, topics) in the mosaic? Are questions (problems, topics) separate entities, or can they be reduced to theories?2016
Status of Tacit TheoriesDescriptiveWhat is the status of tacit theories in the scientific mosaic? Is it possible for a community to actually accept a theory without openly formulating it?2016
Status of Technological KnowledgeDescriptiveWhat is the status of technological knowledge in the scientific mosaic? Can technological knowledge be accepted into a mosaic?2015
Tautological Status of the First LawDescriptiveIs the first law a tautology, i.e. can it in principle be violated?2016
Tautological Status of the Zeroth LawDescriptiveIs the Zeroth law a tautology?2017
Technological TheoryDefinitionalWhat is technological theory? How should it be defined?2016
The Necessity of Intercommunication for CommunityDescriptiveIf two independent communities undergo similar changes which result in identical mosaics, are these communities still considered as distinct, or are they a single community?2016
The Necessity of Language in CommunityDescriptiveIs a shared language, or propositional code, presupposed by the existence of an epistemic community?2017

Suggested Modifications

Here is a list of all modifications suggested to the mosaic of this community:
ModificationTopicDate SuggestedSummaryVerdictVerdict RationaleDate Assessed
Sciento-2016-0001The Paradox of Normative Propositions
Mechanism of Method Employment
3 September 2016Accept a new formulation of the third law to make it clear that employed methods do not have to be deducible from all accepted theories and employed methods but only from some.AcceptedThere was a community consensus that "the new formulation of the third law does bring an additional level of precision to our understanding of the mechanism of method change".c1 The community agreed that the new formulation "makes a clarification that, on its own, warrants this modification's acceptance".c2 Importantly, it was also agreed that the modification "solves the paradox of normative propositions".c321 January 2017
Sciento-2016-0002Theory
Descriptive Theory
Normative Theory
Theory Acceptance
Methodology
3 September 2016Accept a new taxonomy for theory, normative theory, descriptive theory to reintroduce normative propositions (such as those of ethics or methodology) to the scientific mosaic.Not AcceptedSince this modification consisted of two interrelated but essentially distinct suggestions - one taxonomical and one ontological - it was decided by the community to divide it into two modifications so that the gist of the proposed suggestions is properly articulated. In particular, it was agreed that there are two modifications in "the heart of this single modification - one ontological, the other definitional".c1 It was also agreed that the current formulation "is exclusively definitional, and does not give the community an opportunity to appreciate (and, well, accept) the ontological changes that come along with it".c2 Consequently, it was decided to divide this modification into two modifications - one taxonomical and one ontological.c323 January 2017
Sciento-2016-0003Authority Delegation7 September 2016Accept the notion of authority delegation.AcceptedThere was a community consensus that the concept of authority delegation is a significant contribution to scientonomy, as it "sheds light on the mechanism by which the more local, specialized mosaics of epistemic/scientific sub-communities gives rise to the more global scientific mosaic (of *the* Scientific Community), and all in terms of theories and methods".c1 It was also noted that the concept "has already been tacitly accepted by our community"c2 as it has been incorporated in some recent scientonomic research. One further suggestion was to continue refining the concept of authority delegation by focusing on cases "where the delegating community applies its own additional criteria before accepting what the experts tell them".c31 February 2017
Sciento-2016-0004Mutual Authority Delegation
One-sided Authority Delegation
7 September 2016Provided that the notion of authority delegation is accepted, accept the notions of mutual authority delegation and one-sided authority delegation as subtypes of authority delegation.Open
Sciento-2017-0001Theory
Descriptive Theory
Normative Theory
Methodology
23 January 2017Accept new definitions for theory, normative theory, and descriptive theory. Also, modify the definition of methodology to reflect these changes.AcceptedThe community agreed that this is "an important addition to theoretical scientonomy".c1 It was agreed that since "the paradox of normative propositions has been solved, a revised set of definitions was needed".c2 It was emphasized that if we're going to have any sort of conversation on the status of normative propositions in the mosaic, "then we need to start from a definition".c315 February 2017
Sciento-2017-0002Theory Acceptance
Epistemic Elements
23 January 2017Accept a new ontology of scientific change where the two fundamental elements are theories - both descriptive and normative - and methods.AcceptedThe community has agreed that after the solution of the paradox of normative propositions, there are no obstacles for including normative propositions into the ontology of scientific change.c1 c2 c3 It was also agreed that including normative propositions into the ontology of scientific change "would allow us to grasp the role that methodological and ethical rules play in science".c415 February 2017
Sciento-2017-000327 January 2017Accept that licenses to teach [ʾijāzāt] are reliable indicators of which texts were considered authoritative in the Medieval Arabic scientific mosaic (MASM) in c. 750-1258 CE in the Abbasid caliphate. Thus, a proposition can be said to be accepted in MASM if the evidence of the licenses to teach [ʾijāzāt] indicates so.Open
Sciento-2017-0004Mechanism of Theory Acceptance
Outcome Satisfied
Outcome Not Satisfied
Outcome Inconclusive
Theory Assessment Outcomes
Employed Method
5 February 2017Accept the reformulation of the second law which explicitly links theory assessment outcomes with theory acceptance/unacceptance. To that end, accept three new definitions for theory assessment outcomes (satisfied, not satisfied, and inconclusive) as well as the new ontology of theory assessment outcomes, and accept the new definition of employed method.Open
Sciento-2017-0005Tautological Status of the Second Law5 February 2017Accept that the new second law is not a tautology.OpenThe modification can only become accepted once modification Sciento-2017-0004 becomes accepted.
Sciento-2017-0006Inferring Theory Assessment Outcomes5 February 2017Accept the following set of inferences of theory assessment outcomes from the acceptance or unacceptance of a single contender and two contenders.OpenThe modification can only become accepted once modification Sciento-2017-0004 becomes accepted.
Sciento-2017-0007Singular Authority Delegation
Multiple Authority Delegation
Hierarchical Authority Delegation
Non-Hierarchical Authority Delegation
19 May 2017Accept the definitions of the following subtypes of authority delegation: singular authority delegation, multiple authority delegation, hierarchical authority delegation, and non-hierarchical authority delegation.Open
Sciento-2017-000819 May 2017Accept the following reconstruction of the contemporary authority delegation structure in the art market regarding the works of Monet: A work claimed to be by Monet is authentic if it is considered authentic by the Wildenstein Institute.Open
Sciento-2017-000919 May 2017Accept the following reconstruction of the contemporary authority delegation structure in the art market regarding the works of Picasso: a work claimed to be by Picasso is authentic if it is has been certified as authentic by both Maya Widmaier-Picasso and Claude Ruiz-Picasso.Open
Sciento-2017-001019 May 2017Accept the following reconstruction of the authority delegation structure in the art market regarding the works of Modigliani between 1997 and 2015: a work claimed to be by Modigliani is authentic iff (1) it is in the Ceroni catalogue raisonné or (2) if it is not in catalogue and has been certified as authentic by Marc Restellini.Open
Sciento-2017-001119 May 2017Accept the following reconstruction of the contemporary authority delegation structure in the art market regarding the works of Renoir: a work claimed to be by Renoir is authentic iff (1) it has been certified as authentic by the Wildenstein institute or (2) it has not been dismissed by the Wildenstein institute and it is included in the Bernheim-Jeune catalogue.Open
Sciento-2017-0012Group
Accidental Group
Community
19 May 2017Accept a new taxonomy for group and its two sub-types - accidental group, and community.Open
Sciento-2017-0013Existence of Sub-Communities19 May 2017Accept that communities can consist of other communities, i.e. that there is such a thing as a sub-community.OpenThe modification can only become accepted once modification Sciento-2017-0012 becomes accepted.
Sciento-2017-0014Epistemic Community
Non-Epistemic Community
19 May 2017Provided that the definition of community is accepted, accept new definitions of epistemic community and non-epistemic community as sub-types of community.OpenThe modification can only become accepted once modification Sciento-2017-0012 becomes accepted.
Sciento-2017-0015Epistemic Community as Part of Non-Epistemic Community19 May 2017Provided that the distinction between epistemic and non-epistemic communities is accepted, accept that a non-epistemic community can consist of epistemic communities.OpenThe modification can only become accepted once modifications Sciento-2017-0013 and Sciento-2017-0014 all become accepted.

Notable Members

Gregory Rupik
Hakob Barseghyan
Mirka Loiselle
Nicholas Overgaard
Paul Patton
Zoe Sebastien

References

  1. a b  Barseghyan, Hakob. (2015) The Laws of Scientific Change. Springer.