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This encyclopedia cites resources in a semantically meaningful way, i.e. each citation refers to a properly defined bibliographic resource. Thus, to add a reference, please make use of [[CiteRef::Barseghyan (2015)]] style annotations. Here is an example:

There is good reason to believe that a general TSC is not only theoretically possible, but also practically achievable. Indeed, no serious scientist would ever take initial failures in finding regularities as a reason for despair. Physicists, for instance, do not stop searching for general laws when their initial attempts fail to produce the desired results. Likewise, no level of complexity or apparent disunity of historical episodes can justify the particularist abolition of the idea of a general TSC.1

If a citation works, a properly formatted reference will show up in the reference section at the bottom of the page. In order for the citation to work, the bibliographic resource - in this case Barseghyan (2015) - must be added to the encyclopedia's compilation of bibliographical records. To do this, you must first enter the author or authors of the work in the author records. You can do this by visiting the Author record page. Instructions for entering an author record are available on that page. An author record only needs to be entered once. It can then be used for every bibliographic record created for the works of that author. Next you must create a bibliographic record for the cited work. Do this by visiting the bibliographic record page and following the instructions given there and below here. A bibliographic record only needs to be created once. After you have done so, it can then be cited from any page of the encyclopedia.

Articles in Collections

To add an article that was published in a collection, the collection itself should first be added to the system. There are two basic types of collections:

  • collections of articles by different authors;
  • collections of articles by the same author.

If an article is in a collection of articles by different authors, the collection's citation key should include (Ed.) if it has one editor, or (Eds.) if it has more than one editor. E.g.:

Zalta (Ed.) (2016)2

Lakatos and Musgrave (Eds.) (1970)3

However, if a collection of papers is by the same author, we don't add (Ed.) and register that collection as a book, thus:

Lakatos (1978a)4

Note Note: Articles from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) must be cited as collection articles. Please refer to Bird (2011) for an example of how SEP articles are to be entered.

Online Resources

To indicate that a resource is available online, simply add its URL in the respective field. No additional actions are required.

Publication Year

A resource can have more than one editions. When creating a bibliographic record for a publication, the year of actual publication should be used, rather than the year of first publication. For example, Descartes' Treatise on Man was originally published in 1664, but if you are using the translation of the Treatise published by Prometheus Books in 2003, then the citation key should be Descartes (2003), not Descartes (1664). If needed, you can indicate the date of original publication in the abstract.

If an author has more than one publication in the same year, then these publications should be differentiated by adding a letter after the year of the publication, e.g. Lakatos (1978a) and Lakatos (1978b).45

Page Numbers

Whenever the source you are citing is a book (rather than a book section or paper), you should always give the relevant page numbers. Whenever you are directly quoting the source, you should always give the page number, regardless of the nature of the source. To indicate a specific page of the citation, please add |p. <pagenumber> to the [[CiteRef...]] annotation. For example, [[CiteRef::Barseghyan (2015)|p. xii]] will produce this result:1p. xii.

For references to multiple pages, please use |pp. instead of |p., e.g. [[CiteRef::Barseghyan (2015)|pp. 1-3]]:1pp. 1-3

Note Note: There should be no space between | and p., but there must be a space before the page number. Thus, [[CiteRef::Barseghyan (2015)| p.xii]] is incorrect, while [[CiteRef::Barseghyan (2015)|p. xii]] is correct.

Multiple Authors or Editors

If a resource has more than one author or editor, please make sure that each author/editor is added to the system individually and all names are indicated when defining the resource.

Up to Three Authors or Editors

If a resource has up to three authors or editors, all of them will be openly listed. E.g.:

Nola and Sankey (Eds.) (2000)6 Donovan, Laudan, and Laudan (Eds.) (1988)7

Note, that the names are separated with commas, as well as an and.

More than Three Authors or Editors

If a resource has more than three authors/editors, please use et al. in the citation key of the resource. E.g.:

Olby et al. (Eds.) (1990)8

However, all the authors/editors should still be listed as such when entering the bibliographic record of the resource.

Multiple Resources

If two or more resources need to be cited at the same time, please insert as many [[CiteRef...]] references as necessary, without separating them by spaces or commas.

For instance, the following code Some text citing 2 resources.[[CiteRef::Kuhn (1970a)]][[CiteRef::Bird (2011)]] produces the following result: Some text citing 2 resources.910

References Section

The encyclopedia will automatically add References section to the bottom of each page. No additional action is required.

Common Errors

Missing Page Numbers

When a bibliographic resource is cited for a specific idea, page numbers are normally required. Simply citing the whole book isn't really helpful; the respective page numbers should be included wherever reasonable.

Wrong Year

It is tempting to cite the year of first edition of a resource even when a later edition is used. This is unacceptable, since different editions should have different bibliographic records and should not be confused. To avoid confusion, the bibliographic data of the edition that was actually used is to be entered.

Missing Letter

When entering a resource, it is important to check if the author had other publications in the same year. If so, a letter should be added after the year of the resource to differentiate the publications within the same year, e.g. e.g. Feyerabend (1975a) and Feyerabend (1975b). If the letters are missing, different resources cannot be properly differentiated.

wRong cAse

Note Note: The [[CiteRef...]] tag is Case Sensitive. Thus, [[Citeref...]] tag won't work. Similarly, [[CiteRef::barseghyan (2015)]] won't work.

Beware of Spaces

Note Note: There is no space after ::. Thus, [[CiteRef:: Bird (2011)]] is invalid. The valid markup is [[CiteRef::Bird (2011)]].

Citation Before Period or Comma

Note Note: Citations that precede a comma or a period look ugly1p.1. They look much better when placed after the period.1p.1


  1. a b c d e  Barseghyan, Hakob. (2015) The Laws of Scientific Change. Springer.
  2. ^  Zalta, Edward. (Ed.). (2016) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2016 Edition). The Metaphysics Research Lab. Retrieved from
  3. ^  Lakatos, Imre and Musgrave, Alan. (Eds.). (1970) Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge University Press.
  4. a b  Lakatos, Imre. (1978) Philosophical Papers: Volume 1. The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes. Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^  Lakatos, Imre. (1978) Philosophical Papers: Volume 2. Mathematics, Science and Epistemology. Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^  Nola, Robert and Sankey, Howard. (Eds.). (2000) After Popper, Kuhn and Feyerabend: Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method. Springer.
  7. ^  Donovan, Arthur; Laudan, Larry and Laudan, Rachel. (Eds.). (1988) Scrutinizing Science: Empirical Studies of Scientific Change. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  8. ^  Olby, Robert Cecil et al. (Eds.). (1990) Companion to the History of Modern Science. Routledge.
  9. ^  Kuhn, Thomas. (1970) Reflections on My Critics. In Lakatos and Musgrave (Eds.) (1970), 231-278.
  10. ^  Bird, Alexander. (2011) Thomas Kuhn. In Zalta (Ed.) (2016). Retrieved from