Underdetermined Method Change theorem (Barseghyan-2015)

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This is an answer to the question Determinism vs. Underdeterminism in Scientific Change that states "The process of method change is not necessarily deterministic: employed methods are by no means the only possible implementations of abstract requirements."


Underdetermined Method Change theorem was formulated by Hakob Barseghyan in 2015.1 It is currently accepted by Scientonomy community as the best available answer to the question.

Scientonomic History

Acceptance Record

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Scientonomy1 January 2016The theorem became de facto accepted by the community at that time together with the whole theory of scientific change.Yes

Question Answered

Underdetermined Method Change theorem (Barseghyan-2015) is an attempt to answer the following question: Is the process of scientific change a strictly deterministic process? Will two unconnected communities experience a similar historical series of changes in their individual mosaics?

See Determinism vs. Underdeterminism in Scientific Change for more details.


The third law allows for two distinct scenarios of method employment. A method may become employed because it follows strictly from accepted theories or employed methods, or it may the abstract requirements of some other employed method. This second scenario allows for creative ingenuity and depends on the technology of the times, therefore it may be fulfilled in many ways and allows underdeterminism 1p. 198.



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  1. a b  Barseghyan, Hakob. (2015) The Laws of Scientific Change. Springer.