Patton (2019)

From Encyclopedia of Scientonomy
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Patton, Paul. (2019) Epistemic Tools and Epistemic Agents in Scientonomy. Scientonomy 3, 63-89. Retrieved from https://scientojournal.com/index.php/scientonomy/article/view/33621.

Title Epistemic Tools and Epistemic Agents in Scientonomy
Resource Type journal article
Author(s) Paul Patton
Year 2019
URL https://scientojournal.com/index.php/scientonomy/article/view/33621
DOI 10.33137/js.v3i0.33621
Journal Scientonomy
Volume 3
Pages 63-89

Abstract

The only subtype of epistemic agent currently recognized within scientonomy is community. The place of both individuals and epistemic tools in the scientonomic ontology is yet to be clarified. This paper extends the scientonomic ontology to include epistemic agents and epistemic tools as well as their relationship to one another. Epistemic agent is defined as an agent capable of taking epistemic stances towards epistemic elements. These stances must be taken intentionally, that is, based on a semantic understanding of the epistemic element in question and its available alternatives, with reason, and for the purpose of acquiring knowledge. I argue that there can be both communal and individual epistemic agents. Epistemic agents are linked by relationships of authority delegation based on their differing areas of expertise. Having established the role of epistemic agents in the process of scientific change, I then turn to the role of epistemic tools, such as a thermometer, a text, or a particle accelerator in epistemic activities. I argue that epistemic tools play a different role in scientific change than do epistemic agents. This role is specified by an agent’s employed method. A physical object or system is an epistemic tool for some epistemic agent if there is a procedure by which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of the agent. An agent is said to rely on such a tool.

Theories

Here are all the theories formulated in Patton (2019):

TheoryTypeFormulationFormulated In
Non-Hierarchical Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionA sub-type of multiple authority delegation where different epistemic agents are delegated the same degree of authority over question x.2019
Mutual Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agents A and B are said to be in a relationship of mutual authority delegation iff A delegates authority over question x to B, and B delegates authority over question y to A.2019
Epistemic Agent (Patton-2019)DefinitionAn agent capable of taking epistemic stances towards epistemic elements.2019
Singular Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to engage in a relationship of singular authority delegation over question x iff A delegates authority over question x to exactly one epistemic agent.2019
Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to be delegating authority over question x to epistemic agent B iff (1) agent A accepts that agent B is an expert on question x and (2) agent A will accept a theory answering question x if agent B says so.2019
One-sided Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agents A and B are said to be in a relationship of one-sided authority delegation iff A delegates authority over question x to B, but B doesn’t delegate any authority to A.2019
Multiple Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to engage in a relationship of multiple authority delegation over question x iff A delegates authority over question x to more than one epistemic agent.2019
Tool Reliance (Patton-2019)DefinitionAn epistemic agent is said to rely on an epistemic tool iff there is a procedure through which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent.2019
Epistemic Tool (Patton-2019)DefinitionA physical object or system is an epistemic tool for an epistemic agent iff there is a procedure by which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent.2019
Hierarchical Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionA sub-type of multiple authority delegation where different epistemic agents are delegated different degrees of authority over question x.2019
Epistemic Agents - Communities and Individuals (Patton-2019)DescriptiveThere are two types of epistemic agents – individual and communal.2019

Suggested Modifications

Here are all the modifications suggested in Patton (2019):

  • Sciento-2019-0014: Accept the new definition of epistemic agent as an agent capable of taking epistemic stances towards epistemic elements. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0015: Accept that there are two types of epistemic agents – individual and communal. Also accept the question of applicability of the laws of scientific change to individuals as a legitimate topic of scientonomic inquiry. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0016: Accept the definition of epistemic tool, stating that a physical object or system is an epistemic tool for an epistemic agent, when there is a procedure by which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0017: Accept the definitions of authority delegation, and its subtypes, that generalize the currently accepted definitions to apply to all epistemic agents, rather than only communities. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0018: Accept that the relationship of tool reliance can obtain between epistemic agents and epistemic tools. Also accept the definition of tool reliance, which states that an epistemic agent is said to rely on an epistemic tool when there is a procedure through which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.


References

  1. a b c d e  Patton, Paul. (2019) Epistemic Tools and Epistemic Agents in Scientonomy. Scientonomy 3, 63-89. Retrieved from https://scientojournal.com/index.php/scientonomy/article/view/33621.